Changed in version 2022.05: Integrate summaries
2020-01-20 version 1.1 – fixed outgoing links
2018-05-28 version 1.0
This document represents Part 2 of the Open Data Hub Developer’s Guidelines and clarifies the database design criteria for developers who contribute their own databases designs to the Open Data Hub platform.
Database Guidelines Summary
The Database Guidelines contain the database design and database programming principles along with software version requirements. This section contains only the most important points.
Please check the full version of this document at Database Documentation if you want to know more details, if you have some doubt or if what you were looking for is not mentioned in this summary.
The database can be designed with one of the Relational Model, Object-Relational Mapping (ORM), or Semi-structured Data methodologies.
A database designed with either methodology must be shipped with DDL - schema files containing the CREATE statements.
Each database must include a version table and indices on tables.
All (SQL) source code must be well-documented, with in-line comments and higher level documentation.
Use standard database features - Sequences, primary and foreign keys, constraints (unique, check, not null), default values, views, and so on and so forth.
Separate business logic from database design; avoid stored procedure as much as possible.
Small procedures and functions, if needed. must be written in PL/PgSQL.
Do not use foreign data wrappers.
Consider using declarative partitioning for large tables - and contact Open Data Hub team beforehand to discuss it.
UTF8character encoding and do not override it.
Default collation is
en_US, which works well for German and Italian as well.
Never use money type, but numeric.
Dates and time stamps must be store to avoid ambiguity. Never store them as text, but rather use their data types,
date(in UTC format) and
timestamp with timezone. Unix timestamp is accepted as well.
When using or manipulating JSON data always follow ISO_8601 standard.
Database design methodology¶
The Open Data Hub team is generally agnostic about database design and acknowledges the existence of different design and development methodologies.
Specifically, the following methodologies are well known and acceptable:
Relational Model. The data schema is implemented using normalized relations with standard SQL concepts (schemas, tables, columns and keys). The CREATE statements are written by the developer.
Object-Relational Mapping (ORM). The underlying data schema is based on the relation modal, but the CREATE statements are generate by an ORM framework that automatically maps entities to relations.
Semi-structured Data. Entities are stored in a semi-structured format. For the Open Data Hub the preferred format is JSON. Specifically, the recommended design is to map each entity to its own table. The table should have at least two columns: one traditional ID column and one JSON data column. The (simple) CREATE statements are written by the developer. The JSON data column must use the PostgreSQL native data type jsonb (see binary stored JSON in PostgreSQL documentation).
PostgreSQL supports all three methodologies well. It is also possible to have a hybrid design mixing 1. and 3.
A developer contributing a database design to Open Data Hub must provide the DDL , a.k.a. schema files containing the CREATE statements.
Like all source code files, the schema files must be commented in-line and accompanied by additional, higher level documentation.
Besides source code file comments, database objects must also be commented with the SQL comment command (see Sample Code 1 below).
Updates must be provided in the form of ALTER statements, so the modifications can be easily applied to existing databases (see Sample Code 2 below).
All database designs should contain a version table, where the version is stored (and updated with each update).
The Open Data Hub team likes to stress this point: do not just commit database schema dumps, but rather treat SQL-DDL files as source code and cleanly distinguish the initial creation and later updates.
Sample Code 1: A DDL source file called
-- foo.sql -- a document with appendices -- -- changelog: -- version 1.0 -- -- copyright, author etc. create sequence foo_seq; create table doc ( id int default nextval('foo_seq'), title text not null, body text, primary key(id) ); comment on table doc is 'stores foo documents'; create table appendix ( id int default nextval('foo_seq'), section char(1) not null, body text, doc_id int not null, primary key(id), foreign key (doc_id) references doc(id) ); comment on table appendix is 'stores appendices to foo documents'; create table foo_version ( version varchar not null ); insert into foo_version values ('1.0');
Sample Code 2: Update to schema of foo.sql, version 2.0:
-- foo.sql -- a document with appendices -- -- changelog: -- version 2.0 - added a field -- version 1.0 -- -- copyright, author etc. BEGIN; alter table doc add column publication_date date default current_date; update foo_version set version = '2.0'; COMMIT;
The explicit transaction (BEGIN - COMMIT) will make sure the DDL update is applied cleanly or not at all. Note that DDL statements in PostgreSQL are transactional.
If methodology 2 (ORM) is chosen, the contributor should provide the cleanest DDL output the framework provides.
Contributors can expect their database design to be stored into a schema whose name is determined by the Open Data Hub team and executed as a non-privileged user account that has the given schema in its default search_path (see DDL schema path in PostgreSQL documentation).
Unless there is a specific reason, contributed designs must use only a single schema without using its explicit name, because that will be determined by the search_path.
Contributors are invited to make good use of standard database features, including -but not limited to:
Primary and foreign keys.
Not null constraints.
Stored procedures and functions, foreign data wrappers¶
The Open Data Hub team would like to avoid stored procedures and functions as far as possible. Business logic should be implemented in the middle tier, not in the database system.
Hence, the general rule is that database designs submitted to the Open Data Hub must not contain business logic operations.
However, (small) utility procedures and functions, especially with respect to triggers, are allowed. When used, these procedures and functions must be written in PL/PgSQL. Other server-side languages, even the trusted ones, are neither allowed, nor can they be expected to be available.
An example of such an allowed instance of a procedure is an audit trigger that, for any changes made to Table A generates a log entry that is stored in Table B.
Foreign data wrappers (SQL/MED) must not be used.
Indices and Partioning¶
The submitted database designs must include creation of indices on tables.
Of course, the Open Data Hub team will monitor database performance and might be able to add indices at a later time. However, not anticipating obvious index candidates is considered a bug.
The database design contributor knows best what tables and what columns will benefit from indices, when the number of records grows.
In particular, if methodology 3 (JSON) is chosen, PostgreSQL provides specialized multi-dimensional indices of type GIN to index the jsonb data type.
If the contributor anticipates designs with large tables (say more than 100M records or more than 5 GB on disk) and expects queries needing to sequentially scan those tables, declarative partitioning should be considered. The contributor must then contact the Open Data Hub team to agree on a declarative partitioning scheme in advance.
Encoding, collation and localization¶
All Open Data Hub PostgreSQL databases use the
encoding as default encoding and this must not be overridden by a
database design contributor.
The Open Data Hub team wishes to avoid any character encoding issues by using UTF8 for everything.
The default collation is
en_US. For PostgreSQL
running on Linux this collation already behaves reasonably for German
select * from t order by s collate "en_US"; t --- A À Ä B (4 rows)
A contributor is free to add a custom collation such as
it_IT, either at the DDL level or the
query level (see PostgreSQL documentation on collation),
although there is most likely no need to apply other collations.
A database design must not use the
type. Currency amounts must be stored in fields of type
numeric and the currency must be stored separately.
One important aspect concerns dates and timestamps.
Since the Open Data Hub applications span multiple regions and time zones, it is very important to be precise about date and time formats and time zone information.
Dates must be stored in the appropriate
type. Dates stored in this data type will be automatically converted
into the client native format when queried. Never store dates
as text because this creates ambiguity. For example, what date
represent the string
10-07-2018? Is it the seventh of
October 2018 or the tenth of July 2018?
The same holds true for timestamps that must be stored in the
timestamp data type. Besides avoiding format
ambiguities, this data type also includes also the time zone.
PostgreSQL supports also a
timestamp without time
zone data type, according to the SQL standard. However, this data
type must not be used as it does not store the vital time
Here ist the output of two queries executed almost at the same time on two PostgreSQL servers running in different time zones.
This is UTC (no daylight saving).
# select now(); now ------------------------------- 2018-05-28 00:28:25.963945+00 (1 row)
And this is CET (with daylight saving), 2 hours ahead of UTC:
# select now(); now ------------------------------- 2018-05-28 02:28:27.121242+02 (1 row)
You can see that these two queries were executed (almost) at the same time thanks to the time zone information (+00 vs. +02). Without time zone information, the two time stamps appear as separated by two hours.
When using the
types there is no format issue at all, as the PostgreSQL client
libraries automatically convert from and to the client native
format. For example a Java
Date object is automatically
converted to an SQL
Sometimes developers need to convert to and from text. In case a contributing developer wishes to do this using PostgreSQL functions, they must use functions to_date() and to_char() (see PostgreSQL documentation on function formatting).
-- insert into date field d converting from German text: # insert into dates (d) values (to_date('28.5.2018', 'DD.MM.YYYY')); -- select date field d and convert to German text: # select to_char(d, 'DD.MM.YYYY') from dates; to_char ------------ 28.05.2018 (1 row)
Sometimes timestamps are stored as numbers, the so called Unix time stamp (see unix timestamp on wikipedia).
This is also acceptable, as the Unix time stamp always follows UTC and is therefore unambiguous.
For JSON data, contributors must make sure that the textual representation of dates and timestamps follow the ISO standard ISO_8601 (see more on Wikipedia). Examples:
PostgreSQL accepts these strings as inputs for
date types even as text (there is an implicit type cast).